Monday, December 31, 2012

Happy New Year

I wish everybody reading this a Happy New Year. This year was pretty good, but I am going to try and make next year more productive. If you have any suggestions feel free to drop me a line.

Steven Salaita and Liberal Racism (Part Two)

I have now finished reading Salaita's essay collection. It was quite enjoyable. His essays on Virginia Tech where he works as an English professor and approaches to comparative study in this case of Native Americans and Palestinians are particularly interesting. He expresses a deep attachment to Virginia Tech and he is right about the physical beauty of the region. Although given his description of the left liberal white academics and their embrace of racist stereotypes regarding Arabs one gets the feeling that he would be more comfortable teaching at a place like University of Ghana where such people don't exist. The main theme of his collection as already noted is after all the anti-Arab and in some cases anti-Persian racism inherent in much of the discourse of white academic leftists in the US. He returns to this theme with a vengeance in his conclusion. Here the left wing feminist Katha Politt is taken to task for her racist generalizations about Arabs. Salaita notes as I have that while white leftists embraced movements seeking to establish communist dictatorships in Central America, the struggle of the Palestinians for basic human rights and national self determination remained almost completely ignored. Arabs unlike Latin American communists did not have the necessary "cool" factor to attract any concern from white leftists in the US.

Very few white leftists, then or now, have held potlucks in support of the Palestinians, long facing vicious ethnic cleansing, a situation at least as drastic as Central America's faux socialist revolutions (which often replace horrible political systems with renamed horrible political systems). (p. 164).

Indeed lacking pot lucks is the least of the problem. Many American leftists openly supported Israel as a revolutionary socialist regime justified in ethnically cleansing the Palestinians. The basic problem of course is that white academic leftists do not see people in the "third world" as humans equal to themselves. They view them merely as one dimensional props in a morality play and hence the reduction of complex humans to a binary pattern of victims and oppressors. In some cases there is some basis in reality for this view. For instance the white oppression of Blacks in apartheid South Africa. But, the leftist trope of Jews always being victims and good guys does not fit the reality of Palestine. Nor does the typical white leftist American academic view of the world fit  most situations. There is no room  in this leftist world  view for instance for African regimes like Togo backed by "progressive" European states like France repressing Black Africans. It simply does not fit into their preconceived notions of who the are the good guys and who are the bad guys. So it is completely ignored. Salaita is correct to call out the racism and hypocrisy of the privileged white leftists that dominate US academia. Until the dominant left liberal discourse in the US recognizes Arabs, Africans, Asians and other people outside of the US and Europe as being fully human with an equal claim for respect and consideration we will continue to see the very real and negative effects of liberal racism in this world.


Steven Salaita, The Uncultured Wars: Arabs, Muslims, and the Poverty of Liberal Thought - New Essays (London: Zed Books, 2008).

Sunday, December 30, 2012

Steven Salaita and Liberal Racism (Part One)

I am reading Steven Salaita's collection of essays, The Uncultured Wars: Arabs, Muslims, and the Poeverty of Liberal Thought - New Essays (London: Zed Books, 2008). Salaita's book deals primarily with left liberal racism in the US against Arabs, but also can be extended to other people of color. He hits a lot of the themes I have been writing about on this blog. Foremost among that that a lot of self described "liberals" and "progressives" do not view non-white people as fully human despite denouncing lots of other white people for being racists.  There is also the fact that it is "liberal" racism that is largely responsible for the continuing racial injustices involving the US not the opinions of poor and openly bigoted rural whites. This latter group has no real power and to suggest that their opinions rather than the political power of left liberal "progressives" in the US Senate and House like Chuck Schumer, Nancy Pelosi, and Barney Frank are at the root of institutional racism is simply laughable. This is of course as Salaita notes especially true regarding anti-Arab racism and US support of Israeli apartheid. Israel has long been a "progressive" cause in the US and it is the votes of left liberals like Schumer, Pelosi, Frank, Grayson, Levin, Wasserman Schultz, Harman and others in the Democratic Party that have sustained the Israeli repression of the Palestinians for decades. They voted for the hundreds of billions of dollars of military aid the US has given to Israel, not Pat Robertson or Jerry Falwell. Without the votes and advocacy of left liberals in the US, Israel would have gone the way of Rhodesia long ago. The support of the relatively new and weak political force constituted by Christian Zionists is insufficient to keep Israel alive. They unlike the left liberals have not controlled the US Congress, media, and academia which have unconditionally supported Israel since 1967. Salaita's first essay does a pretty good job of summing up the responsibility of liberals for institutional racism in the US regarding Arabs. The paragraph below in particular strikes at the heart of the matter.

Another related problem of the liberal left around the issue of anti-Arab racism is an unwillingness to engage Arabs on the basis of their fundamental humanity. It has been well established among people of color that racism cannot take root in any society without liberal acquiescence. Liberalism confounds the problem by providing its advocates with a comforting illusion that the fact of being liberal is enough to identify as anti-racist. (p. 18).

That is racism exists in the US because the liberals in power let it exist and are complaisant about its existence because they wrongly think that denouncing openly racist expressions against Blacks by poor and powerless whites somehow magically removes their responsibility for maintaining racial inequalities. It should be noted that it is not merely "white privilege" that they benefit from, but specifically white liberal privilege. This privilege is most evident in the domination of US universities by what Salaita calls, "liberal academic windbags." (p. 26).  But, needless to say despite a lot of wind these people have done a lot more to sustain racial injustice in the world than they have to combat it.

The Latest Leftist Strategy to Denigrate Africa

I have noticed a new leftist strategy to denigrate Africa and particularly Ghana on the Internet. This consists of dismissing all of the political, economic, and social progress made by Ghana as an independent state because unpaid child labor still exists in some sectors of the economy. This is a particularly racist argument because it states that as long as Ghana fails to completely eliminate child labor that nothing else it does counts as worthwhile. Meanwhile a completely different set of standards is applied to the "progressive" and white European countries. Their political and economic achievements are never dismissed because of continuing injustices in their societies. Nobody ever says that the educational and health care systems in Europe should be dismissed because racial discrimination against African immigrants continues to exist in these societies. Or the fact that child prostitution still exists in Europe. This is a strategy that US "progressives" reserve solely for successful African countries. The fact that Ghana has established a long term stable democratic system after years of military dictatorship is completely dismissed because the government still has not totally eradicated child labor in the fishing and cocoa industries. The fact that standards of living for many people have increased dramatically in recent years is also totally ignored in favor of pointing out that child labor still exists Indeed it seems that no matter how prosperous, democratic, and otherwise advanced Ghana becomes none of this will ever be recognized as significant by US "progressives" as long as Ghana fails to reach perfection in eliminating child labor. This is a completely unreasonable stance by US "progressives" and one that is motivated by racism as they have never applied similar impossible standards to white European countries.

Hate Crime in NYC

I just want to note that Bloomberg the mayor of NYC does not think that the deliberate murder of a Hindu man because somebody thought he was a Muslim is a big deal. I guarantee if somebody pushed a Jew in front of a train and justified it on the basis that they hated Jews that the mayor would think it was a big deal. We would be inundated with stories about rising anti-semitism and hate crimes against Jews. But, instead we are treated to the increasing Israelization of the US where the lives of some people as defined by their ancestral religion are worth more than the lives of others.

hat tip: Mondoweiss

Current Reading on Development

I am currently reading Gilbert Rist, The History of Development: From Western Origins to Global Faith (London: Zed, 2008 [1996]). One thing I notice that he brings out is just how blind many western intellectuals were to human rights violations by socialist states during the 1960s and 1970s. For instance he notes, "A blind eye was turned to the brutalities of the Chinese regime, and the people's communes were hailed in their vitality as a reconciliation of theory and practice that was abolishing the petty-bourgeois mentality and putting into practice a new model of 'development.'" (p. 140).  He further elaborates on this embrace of Castro, Mao's Cultural Revolution, North Vietnam, the Sandinistas, and even the Khmer Rouge by left wing western intellectuals on pages 174 to 176. Now there were plenty of dictatorships supported by the US government during the Cold War such as Suharto, Mobuto, and the various military juntas in Latin America. But, there was never any intellectual cheer leaders for these regimes stressing their commitment to creating a utopia. US policy supported these regimes as a matter of rather openly naked national self interest. It was the left that dressed up things like the Cultural Revolution in China in the lofty language of "progress" and opposing the "evils" of capitalism and imperialism.

Friday, December 28, 2012

Russian-Germans Defending Brest 22-29 June 1941

One of the first heroic defenses against Nazi aggression by the Soviet Red Army took place at Brest Fortress on 22-29 June 1941. The fortress held out much longer than anybody expected due to the determination of the soldiers garrisoned there. Among them were a significant number of Russian-Germans in the 125th Rifle Regiment under Major Aleksandr Duhlkeit. Besides Duhlkeit the ethnic Germans that fought against the Nazis at Brest included Nikolai Kung, Heinrich Klinger, Edward Mueller, Edward Damm, Vladimir Weber, Georg Schmidt, Aleksandr Herzog, Aleksandr Hermann, Heinrich Reling, Viacheslav Meyer, Aleksandr Wagenleitner,  and Erich Krohl (Bugai, pp. 191-192).  The Soviet government posthumously awarded Meyer the Order of the Fatherland 2nd Degree for his role in the battle of Brest (German and Shul'ga, p. 28). It is probable that a large number of battles against the Nazis would have shown similar resolve by Russian-Germans in the ranks of the Red Army had the Stalin regime not removed them from military service and sent them to forced labor camps in the Urals and other distant regions.


N.F. Bugai, Oni srazhalis' za rodinu: Predstaviteli repressirovannykh narodov SSSR na frontakh Velikoi Otchestvennoi voiny (Moscow: Novyi Khrongraf, 2005).

Arkadii German and Igor Shul'ga, "'Ne byvat' fashistskoi svin'e v nashem sovetskom ogorode' : Sovetskie nemtsy na fronte i v tylu vraga," Rodina, May 2010, pp. 28-31.

Thursday, December 27, 2012

Africa and the Failure of the Human Rights Paradigm

The international liberal human rights paradigm has had limited success. One big problem is that it has never been universal. Almost nobody, certainly not most liberals supported human rights for ethnic Germans in 1945 or Palestinians in 1948. But, even when there is not open support of human rights violations against certain groups on the basis that they are "reactionary" or "Nazis" there is a general neglect of  cases not considered interesting. I have looked in vain for any "liberal" or "progressive" blogs dealing with human rights or the struggle for democracy in Togo where the same family has been in control since 1967 and the use of tear gas and rubber bullets against protesters is routine. There is not much there. "Progressive" white bloggers just do not care about Togo or most of Black Africa period. It is not something that they write about very often. It simply does not interest them. So human rights causes only get promoted in those cases where the cause manages to develop a certain "coolness" factor. Something that is hard to do for most "third world people." This almost complete neglect of most of the non-white world co-exists with prolific denunciations of racism against people of color in the US, almost as if it were a totem to show how much they really do care and demonstrate just how "cool" they are. But, surely if they were truly concerned with the plight of Black people in the world then they should focus not on the US, but rather Africa. After all there are over 20 times as many Black people in Africa as in the US and the plight of the down trodden, oppressed, and poor in Africa is considerably worse than that suffered by African-Americans. Of course to do so would mean actually looking at Africans as real human beings and seeking ways of working with them to improve conditions in Africa rather than merely using the charge of racism as a weapon to hammer political opponents in the US. The first of these options requires some real thinking and work. It also takes time. The second one is easy and gets instant results. So I guess I should not be surprised that none of the big "liberal" or "progressive" blogs express much interest in Africa.

Wednesday, December 26, 2012

In answer to Farhad: Why I consider myself a "right winger" and not a "progressive"

I identify myself as a "right winger" I prefer that term to conservative because the latter term is far too closely linked to specifically American issues that have no parallel anywhere else in the world and I have lived outside the US for many years now. The reason I claim to be a man of the "right" and not the "left" is the fact that I support traditional societies in opposition to revolutionary violence. The use of political violence to enforce "progressive" change was a hallmark of the international left during the 20th century. It was the main motivator behind Stalinism, the ethnic cleansing of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe, and Zionism. The traditional societies of the Crimean Tatars, Sudeten Germans, and Palestinians just to name a few politically incorrect peoples were all considered to be reactionary obstacles to "progress" and hence subjected to violent dispersion aimed at destroying them as viable national entities. With very few exceptions the people who opposed these atrocities in the 1940s and 50s and even beyond were all identified as being on the "extreme right." The international "left" for the most part enthusiastically endorsed the brutal ethnic cleansing of these peoples as a just collective punishment for the crimes of collaborating with the Nazis and opposing the "progressive" Soviet and Israeli states. I do not believe that revolutionary violence against traditional societies is justified in the name of "progress" or punishing "Nazi collaborators." I reject the ideas of collective punishment and forcibly destroying ethnic communities that continue to hold on to "reactionary" beliefs and practices. It does not matter to me that in some cases these groups really did posses odious opinions. Obviously the traditional anti-semitism of many ethnic Germans in East Central Europe and the USSR was totally unacceptable in US "liberal" society. But, I find the support of "liberals" for ethnically cleansing these people because of this prejudice to be a far worse form of racism. I continue to see this type of support for collective punishment among a number of "progressives" regarding the Palestinians. The constant reference to the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem's collaboration with the Nazis, the consistent pointing to Israeli support of gay rights versus the opinions of Hamas on this issue, and the branding of the Palestinians as "anti-semites", as justifications for Israeli crimes all follow a similar pattern to that already established regarding ethnic Germans, Crimean Tatars, and other "enemies of progress" in the mid 1940s. I can not identify myself with the "progressives" endorsing collective punishment and ethnic cleansing. Instead I find myself on the same side as the "extreme right" during the 1950s in opposing these crimes.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Merry Christmas

To all my readers who celebrate Christmas on the 25th of December, Merry Christmas. For the last week I have been taking it easy and hearing Joy to the World played everywhere. This is my second Christmas in Ghana and while a lot of people in the US talk about how they like white Christmases I actually like the warm weather.

Sunday, December 23, 2012

Burundi: Rwanda's Mirror Twin

I have started reading Peter Uvin's Life after Violence: A People's Story of Burundi. I must say other than the 1972 massacre of Hutus by the Tutsi regime I knew almost nothing about Burundi before today. The number of fatalities in 1972 is contested, but Peter Uvin says the number killed exceeded 80,000 (Uvin, p. 10). The very small amount of public knowledge about Burundi strikes me as odd given the attention paid to its neighbors, particularly Rwanda and Congo since 1994. Burundi has not been spared the horrors of ethnic killings and civil war that have affected its better known neighbors. For most of the post-colonial period Rwanda had a government led by the Hutu majority that practiced apartheid against the Tutsi minority. Burundi in contrast during most of this time had a regime controlled by the Tutsi minority that imposed apartheid upon the Hutu majority (Uvin, pp. 9-10). In both countries Hutu made up about 85% of the population versus 15% Tutsi (Uvin, p. 12). Uvin in fact even uses the word apartheid to describe the system of largely excluding the Hutu majority from government jobs, university education, positions in public corporations, and places in the officer corp of the military (Uvin, p. 10). This discrimination led to a Hutu military insurrection and full scale civil war between Hutus and Tutsis from 1994 to 2006. While less costly in human terms than either the genocide in Rwanda which claimed over one million lives or the ongoing conflict in Congo which has now claimed over five million lives, the Burundian civil war was quite bloody. Uvin estimates the number killed at 300,000 with another 500,000 forced to flee to neighboring countries as refugees and 800,000 displaced within Burundi (Uvin, p. 15). This violence like the violence in Congo is connected to events in Rwanda since 1994 and should be studied in this context.

Source: Peter Uvin, Life after Violence: A People's Story of Burundi (London: Zed Books, 2009).

I Like Chuck

I like Chuck Hagel. I like him precisely because he is not a tool of the Israeli lobby and puts the interests of the US before that of the state of Israel. I hope he becomes the next Secretary of Defense. Unfortunately, the people who put the interests of Israel ahead of the US are very powerful in US politics and media. So he may be defeated. But, after Obama's spectacularly bad pick of Susan Rice to be Secretary of State it is good to see him make a very good choice for Secretary of Defense.

Saturday, December 22, 2012

New Book Acquisitions

Today I purchased five books. I got three scholarly books published by Zed and two novels. I have listed the publishing information below.


Yehudit Kirstein Keshet, Checkpoint Watch: Testimonies From Occupied Palestine (London: Zed Books, 2006).

Rosemary Sayigh, The Palestinians: From Peasants to Revolutionaries (London: Zed Books, 2009 [1979]).

Peter Uvin, Life after Violence: A People's Story of Burundi (London: Zed Books, London, 2009).


Jonathan Kellerman, Twisted: A Novel, (NY: Ballantine Books, 2005).

John Sandford, Broken Prey, (London: Simon and Schuster, 2005).

George Fredrickson on Race and South Africa and Why Francine Hirsch is Wrong

The literature on racism is vast. But, despite the large amount of writing on the subject, the definition of racism is more often assumed rather than actually articulated. One of the best definitions of racism that I have found is that proposed by George Fredrickson. He succinctly summarizes his position with the statement, "we might say that racism exists when one ethnic group or historical collectivity dominates, excludes, or seeks to eliminate another on the basis of differences that it believes are hereditary and unalterable." (Fredrickson, p. 170). This is a much more accurate and useful definition than the one given by Francine Hirsch. She defines "race" in purely biological rather than social or legal terms as most scholars understand it. Echoing Stalinist era Soviet anthropologists she claims race is "a physiological or biological type, whereas nationalities were sociological and historical forms." (Hirsch, p. 35). Given her narrow definition of "race" she defines "racial politics" in an equally narrow manner as the persecution of groups based upon "suspected 'biological weakness' or 'deficient inner constitutions.'" (Hirsch, p. 37). She completely ignores the scholarly consensus of people like Fredrickson, Rex, Malik, Balibar, and others that "race" is a constructed category and that it can be constructed and justified along lines other than biology. It is in fact often constructed along sociological and historical lines such as nationality. That is nationality can be racialized.

George Fredrickson has noted many times in contrast to Francine Hirsch that "race" does not have to be based upon biology and genetics like the Nazi conception, but can be based upon essentializing the culture of particular ethnic groups. That is the distinction between ethnicity and race is often blurred and that ethnic groups can become "racialized" under the right circumstances. He notes, "Unlike some sociologists, I do not believe that one can regard race and ethnicity as clearly distinct and unrelated phenomena." (Fredrickson, p. 154). He goes on to note that one way of looking at "race" is in fact as ethnicity that has been essentialized. Or as he puts it, "Race can therefore be described as what happens when ethnicity is deemed essential or indelible and made hierarchical." (Fredrickson, pp. 154-155). It should be noted that natsional'nost in the USSR was at least since 1938 treated by the Soviet government as essential and indelible as well as hierarchical. The fact that this treatment was based upon justifications regarding essentialized culture rather than biology does not make it less racist. Culture has often served as a substitute for biology in justifying racial discrimination. Or as Fredrickson puts it, "Culture and even religion can become essentialized to the point where they can serve as a functional equivalent of biological racism..." (Fredrickson, p. 145). The use of cultural rather than biological justifications to deny certain groups defined by their ancestry equal rights with other citizens of a given society is no less racist than using genetic rationalizations.

Fredrickson's definition is not merely theoretical. The Nazi Holocaust against the Jews completely destroyed the credibility of justifications of racial discrimination based upon biology and genetics. As a result cultural justifications for systems of racial exclusion became much more prevalent. Nowhere was this more apparent than in South Africa. After the imposition of apartheid in 1948, the official rationalization for the differential treatment of blacks and whites relied upon justifications of culture and not biology. Rather than appealing to theories of genetic inferiority, "the defenders of apartheid who responded to international criticism between the 1950s and 1970s eschewed biological arguments in favor of what historian Saul Dubnow has aptly described as 'cultural essentialism.'" (Fredrickson, p. 135). This 'cultural essentialism" attached to Afrikaners, Zulus, Xhosas, and other ethnic groups or in Soviet terminology nationalities did not differ significantly from the Soviet practice of categorizing its population according to immutable groups based upon ancestry and establishing a hierarchy of rights for these groups. At the top of the Soviet hierarchy were the Russians and at the bottom were the various deported peoples placed under special settlement restrictions. Even after the abolition of the special settlement regime this hierarchy persisted in the continuing ban placed upon Russian-Germans, Crimean Tatars, and Meskhetian Turks from returning to their homelands and their lack of national territories complete with the various political and cultural institutions guaranteed to other Soviet nationalities. 

Yet using Hirsch's definitions there were no "racial politics" in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. The South Africans officially conceived of the various ethnic groups or nationalities in South Africa not as biological groups, but as social and historical groups. This is quite evident from the literature of not only the South African government itself, but also the volkekundiges who played the same role in South Africa as did ethnographers in the USSR. Indeed the concept of apartheid in theory sounds remarkably similar to korenizatsiia. 

For Afrikaners , "Christian Nationalism" meant schools and universities , separate from those attended by the English, in which the language and and values of the Afrikaner Volk could flower. In theory , it meant the same thing for Zulus and Xhosa, whose homelands would be the cradles of growth of their own unique national cultures. (Fredrickson, p. 135).

The white apartheid regime in South Africa and its scholarly supporter did not speak in terms of biology or genetics. They like the Soviet Union justified their policies in terms of ethnicity, Volk (Narod), culture, and history. Since the discrimination under apartheid was officially against groups defined on the basis of their social and historical development and justified on that rather than any biological reasoning then one would have to conclude using Hirsch's definitions that no "racial politics" existed in South Africa. This is of course a patently absurd conclusion. As Fredrickson points out, "the essence of racism is not biological determinism per se but the positing, on whatever basis, of unbridgeable differences between ethnic or descent groups - distinctions that are then used to justify their differential treatment." (Fredrickson, p. 137). Practicing discrimination against groups on the basis of their ethnicity (natsional'nost) falls under the category of racism if ethnicity is defined in such a way as to make assimilation impossible. In both the case of the USSR and South Africa ethnicity was permanent, immutable, essentialized, and based upon ancestry. They were also both justified on the basis of cultural, historical, and social factors not biological or genetic ones.

Fortunately, outside of scholars of the USSR nobody uses Hirsch's definition of "race" today. Even the volkekundiges have abandoned attempts to historically justify apartheid on the basis that it was founded upon the differential treatment of social and historical and not biologically defined groups. Only in the case of the Soviet Union does Hirsch's outmoded and inaccurate definition of race still dominate. Unfortunately, she seems to completely dominate the historical study of Soviet nationalities in the US. The words "race", racism, racialization, and racial discrimination remain almost completely absent from scholarly works on Soviet nationality policy written by US based scholars. This absence is not due to a lack of official racism in the USSR, but rather to adoption of Soviet definitions by scholars in the US to defend the regime from the charge of racial discrimination. One could just as easily use the same definition of "race" to deny that there were ever any "racial politics" in South Africa during the era of apartheid and it would be just as ridiculous. 


George M. Fredrickson, Racism: A Short History (Princeton University Press, 2002).

Francine Hirsch, "Race without the Practice of Racial Politics," Slavic Review, vol. 61, no. 1 (Spring 2002), pp. 30-43.

Friday, December 21, 2012

My Union is Making me Rich

Today I got my check for my teaching at City Campus. The Union has gotten the amount we make from teaching at there more than doubled from last year. In fact it is about two and a half times greater. A full semester still pays less than a month of regular salary, but the new rate is a huge increase over the old one.

Thursday, December 20, 2012


Today I accomplished no actual work. Instead I went to buy a new MTN modem. The old one vanished, actually I think it was stolen. But, it had no data on it and it turns out to be a lot cheaper to buy a new modem with data on it than to buy data to put on an old modem. The only problem is that traffic this time of year is awful and waiting at the MTN store to buy and register anything usually takes longer than waiting at the state hospital to see a doctor. Then I went to the bank to get money for the Christmas weekend. The highlight of my day was seeing an old friend of mine from Nigeria that I met in Bishkek in 2010. This is the second time he has come to Legon to have lunch with me.  Finally, after lunch I dropped off my laundry to be cleaned. I do not intend to leave Legon and fight against Accra traffic again until after Boxing Day.

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Book Title Suggestions?

My colleague across the hall also told me today that we are supposed to get a book and research stipend this month as well. So I will have some money to buy more 10 cedi ($5.00) books published by Zed. For some reason almost all of the nonfiction at the big bookstore across from the university is published by Zed. So if you know of any good books published by Zed please list them in the comments so I can go buy them. I think the stipend is pretty substantial so feel free to list as many Zed books as you think are good.

I Love My Union

It turns out my union, UTAG, is still getting me back pay. Today I got an extra month's salary deposited in my bank account from the University. I was not expecting this at all and was surprised when my colleague across the hall told me yesterday that the university had sent the money out to our banks on Friday. It is, however, a very nice surprise.

Sunday, December 16, 2012

Reading on Rwanda

In my continuing effort to enlarge my knowledge about African history I am now reading Linda Melvern, A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide, New Updated Edition, (London: Zed Books, 2009). I understand that Susan Rice who is a hero to many self described American "liberals" and "progressives" got her start in facilitating the mass murder of Africans in 1994 under the Clinton Administration during the Rwandan Genocide. So far, however, the main bad guys besides the Rwandan players have been the "progressive" and "social democratic" states of Belgium and France so beloved by American "progressives." The American "Left" always likes to condemn American imperialism, but they almost never mention the long standing imperialist and neo-colonialist policies of European states like France and Belgium towards Africa. It is almost as if the EU has become the new USSR for American "progressives".

Friday, December 14, 2012

Commonwealth Hall (Vandal City) Again

Last night there was a Commonwealth Hall Fellows meeting to go over the Hall Master's annual report. Commonwealth Hall is the largest dormitory on campus with nearly 1000 students. It is also the only all male hall. While the "Vandals" have a reputation for being a bit wild going back to the 1960s they also provide a disproportionately high number of very good students in terms of academic accomplishment. They also provide many of the university's best athletes. As a result the hall has a strong identity on campus and one which I am proud to share. When everything is said and done, "Truth Stands."

Tuesday, December 11, 2012

Thoughts on Poverty

I must really be out of it. I thought poverty was living in a shack with no electricity and no running water, not having enough to eat, and dying because you can not afford the 1.5 cedis (0.75 US) that it costs to buy anti-malaria medicine. It turns out in the US you can own two cars, run the air conditioning 24/7, have a big screen television with cable and still be considered "poor." There is real poverty even in America. That is people sleeping on the streets in all of their clothes and diving in dumpsters to eat. To me lumping the two groups of people together is ludicrous. In one case you have a group of people who own luxuries that most people in the world including myself will probably never be able to afford. In the other case you have people who are literally just one cold night away from death.

Monday, December 10, 2012

Air Conditioning Question

I was shocked to find out that over 80% of "poor people" in the US have air conditioning. I do not have air conditioning in my residence here in Ghana and I live on the equator. I used to live in Arivaca, Arizona where it gets really, really hot and I had no air conditioning. How is it that "poor people" in the US can afford things like air conditioning that people with PhDs like myself can not afford? What has happened in the US since I left? Did the price of air conditioning drop to $1 a month or something? If so then why has the low price remained limited to the US? Less than 20% of people in Africa have home air conditioning. Even in super rich Europe you will not find 80% of the "poor" with air conditioning. What gives?

Sunday, December 09, 2012

Mahama wins reelection

I predicted the Ghanaian presidential elections correctly. Mahama won reelection as Ghana's president. So we will have another four years of rule by the NDC.

Friday, December 07, 2012

Tagillag Intake 1942-1946

Between 1942 and 1946 the Soviet government forcibly conscripted 6,519 Russian-Germans into the labor army and sent them to work at Tagillag. Below is a breakdown of the various waves of conscription and transfer of Russian-Germans into Tagillag.

1942 - Conscripted from Russian-German men deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia according to GKO Order 1123ss of 10 January 1942 - 2,982 (44.9%).
1942 - Conscripted from Russian-German men already living in eastern regions of the USSR before 1941 according to GKO Order 1281ss of 14 February 1942 - 621 (9.5%).
1942 - Removed from the ranks of the Red Army - 495 (7.6%).
1943 - Conscripted from Russian-German men and women deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia according to GKO Order 3960 ss of 19 August 1943 - 1,652 (25.3%).
1942-1946 - Came from place of incarceration after completing sentence - 180 (2.8%).
1942-1946 - Transferred from other NKVD camps - 319 (4.9%).
1942-1946 - Other - 322 (4.9%).
Total - 6,519 (100%).

Source: V. Kirillov and S. Razinkov, "Sovetskie Nemtsy - Trudarmeitsy Tagillaga (1942-1946gg.), in A. German (ed.), Nemtsy SSSR v gody Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny i v pervoe poslevoennoe desiatiletie 1941-1955gg. (Moscow: Gotika, 2001), pp. 148-156.

Final Post on Western Sahara for Now

Okay, I have now  finished the Shelley book and this is my last post organizing the tiny bit of new knowledge I have about the Western Sahara. I only have two final observations. First, that the Moroccans were quite ruthless in their suppression of the Sahrawis. The Moroccan security forces "disappeared" around 500 people, 57 prisoners are known to have died in captivity, and over 1,300 others have been detained for various lengths of time (Shelley, p. 100). If the total Sahrawi population in Western Sahara was only 90,000 in 2004 then more than 2% or one in fifty people either "disappeared" or spent time in Moroccan prisons. This is an incredibly high percentage and is equivalent to about six million people in the US.

Second, for all intents and purposes it appears that the UN spearheaded by the US, France, and UK has abandoned any pretense of pressuring Morocco to allow a referendum on independence for the Western Sahara. The Polisario is still observing the ceasefire, but the goal of an independent Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic in any substantial amount of the territory of Western Sahara keeps getting further away. It has become increasingly unlikely that Western Sahara will follow in the footsteps of East Timor. Given the massive settlement of Moroccans in Western Sahara it is likely that Rabat will be able to fully integrate the territory without having to make any concessions to Sahrawi autonomy.

Source: Toby Shelley, Endgame in the Western Sahara: What Future for Africa's Last Colony? (London: Zed, 2004).

An Election on Farmers' Day

Today is a national holiday in Ghana. It is Farmers' Day. It is also election day. I am still confident with my prediction that the NDC will retain the presidency. I am also confident that there will be no significant incidents of violence or other problems with the election.

Length of Time to PhD: It should be Three Years Maximum

I understand that Stanford is now offering a five year PhD as a reduced time to finish. This is ridiculous. In the UK the standard time to complete a PhD is three years. I did mine in two. If you take seven years to complete a PhD you are either twice as lazy or twice as stupid as somebody who does it in three years. Even five years is an awful long time to write a single book without any other obligations all the while receiving extensive advice on how to write that book from trained professionals. Honestly, where I got my PhD (SOAS) the dissertation is limited at 100,000 words. So if you write 200 words a day you can finish the first draft in no more than 500 days or less than a year and a half. That gives you a year and a half to edit and polish a short book manuscript. It can of course be done even faster. If I were not the laziest man on earth I probably could have finished writing my dissertation a lot quicker than the two years it did take me. Five years is not a short time to write a PhD thesis. It is an extraordinarily long time by the standards of most of the Commonwealth. Anybody who spends seven, eight, or more years writing a PhD dissertation is not making good use of their time.

Update: In response to the comment below I am clarifying that I am only talking about PhDs written in the field of history. It does not apply to any other field since I have no first hand knowledge about what those fields entail. But, writing up a short monograph on an historical topic should not take over a half a decade if that is your main focus during that time.

Thursday, December 06, 2012

Western Sahara Demographics

One of the things that has stood out for me as I read Shelley's book on the Western Sahara is just how small the indigenous population of the territory is in comparison to Morocco or even Mauritania. There are no exact census data, but the estimates all point to a very small population especially given the geographic size of Western Sahara. Shelley puts the number of indigenous Sahrawis at 90,000 in the territory and the number of Moroccan settlers as many as 300,000 plus 160,000 soldiers. Including the Sahrawi refugees and others outside the territory may have boosted the indigenous population up to 250,000. Since that time the total population of Western Sahara is estimated to have exceeded 500,000. But, finding a breakdown between the indigenous population and the settlers has eluded me. This demographic reality means that Morocco has successfully swamped the territory with its own citizens and made the Sahrawis a rather small minority, about 25%, in their own country. Given the unreliable nature of all the population figures on Western Sahara, please feel to add any corrections, updates, or other information you might have in the comments.

Note: I have updated the post with more accurate information since yesterday.

Russian-German Labor Army Mortality at Viatlag

Between February 1942 and 1 July 1944 a total of 8,207 Russian-Germans mobilized into the labor army arrived at the Viatlag corrective labor camp. During this time a total of 1,428 (17.4%) of these men and women died of hunger, cold, and illness in the camp. Another 1,581 (19.26%) were released as being ill with a "hopeless diagnoses." The most common diseases to afflict the forced laborers at Viatlag were inflammation of the lungs, tuberculosis, and alimentary dystrophy. This last term was a euphemism used by Soviet authorities to describe starvation. Looking at the statistical data enumerated above, the number of deaths in the camp plus those released to die from these conditions numbered over 3,000 or 36.6% of the total contingent. Thus probably over a third of the Russian-Germans conscripted into the labor army and sent to work in Viatlag during the years 1942-1944 either died in the camp itself or shortly thereafter due to health problems directly related to their stay in the camp.

Source: V.A. Berdinskikh, "Rossiiskie nemtsy v Viatlage," in A.A. German (ed.), Nachal'nyi period Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny i deportatsiia rossiiskikh nemtsev: vzgliady i otsenki cherez 70 let (Moscow: MSNK-press, 2011), pp. 552-561.

Wednesday, December 05, 2012

The Grading has Begun

I have now started grading the huge stack of final exams on my desk. I got through five today. I am easing into it. I should pick up momentum as I progress. Tomorrow, I have nothing else to do other than grade tests so I am hoping to get through a lot more.


The secret to good writing is rewriting. The first draft of anything is going to be rubbish. It takes at least three drafts or so to make an historical article or chapter into something presentable. But, I think after today's corrections that my current draft of "Is there a Black Eurasia?: Ghanaian and other Diasporic African Populations in the USSR in Comparative Perspective" has finally reached that level. Of course nothing is ever perfect, but I don't have any more improvements to make until I get some more feed back from other people.

Western Sahara as a Colony of Morocco

It appears that the Western Sahara meets all of my criteria for being a colony. It is politically controlled by an outside power run by people of a different ethnicity and nationality and the indigenous population has neither autonomy or influence in Rabat. It is economically exploited by Morocco. The Moroccans extract a far greater net value from the Western Sahara than they invest in it. In particular the mining of phosphates and off shore fishing have benefited Morocco in a manner very similar to other colonial economic relations. In contrast very little has been invested by Rabat in the social and economic infrastructure of Western Sahara. The territory does not even have a single university. The Moroccan government has also settled hundreds of thousands of people from Morocco proper into Western Sahara.  Finally, there has been significant opposition to Moroccan rule by the indigenous population including armed resistance by the Polisario. The controversial part of this claim is of course the first one. The Moroccan government claims that Western Sahara is part of its territory that got split off from the rest of the country by the colonial powers of France which ruled Morocco and Spain which ruled Western Sahara. The Sahrawis and their Algerian allies claim that Morocco took over from Spain as the colonial ruling power in Western Sahara in 1975.

Moscow Germans Deported to Uzbekistan

The Stalin regime deported comparatively few Russian-Germans to Uzbekistan. Indeed I was somewhat surprised when a woman I interviewed in Kant, Kyrgyzstan told me about her German family being deported from Belarus to Uzbekistan. Evidently the NKVD also deported some of the ethnic Germans living in Moscow to Uzbekistan. I was unaware of this previously and was under the impression that all the deportees from Moscow ended up in Kazakhstan. Echelon 1072 arrived in Tashkent on 27 September 1941 with 2769 deportees from Moscow after travelling for thirteen days. The Soviet government placed these special settlers in Kirov Raion in Tashkent Oblast. So in addition to the massive number of Russian-Germans the NKVD exiled to Kazakhstan and Siberia, they also initially sent a few thousand to Uzbekistan. 

Source: A.A. German, "Deportatsiia nemtsev iz Moskvy i Moskovskoi oblasti" in A.A. German (ed)., Nachal'nyi period Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny i deportatsiia rossiiskikh nemtsev: vzgliady i otsenki cherez 70 let (Moscow: MSNK-press, 2011),  pp. 521-527.

Monday, December 03, 2012

Ghanaian Elections are Friday 7 December 2012

The Ghanaian elections are this Friday. I am still predicting that the NDC will beat the NPP and Mahama will maintain the post of the presidency. None of the other parties have a chance of winning. Although it is possible that the PPP can force a runoff election.

Emancipation Celebration

Yesterday I went to an event involving the History Department, the Institute of African Studies, and the Ghana Historical Society supposedly to celebrate emancipation. The historians in the History Department and the Institute of African Studies do not have a lot of contact with each other so every time I see someone from African Studies  it is like a reunion. Most of the day was spent eating and engaging in informal conversation. But, there was short formal panel. Surprisingly there was not much said on the history of slavery. There was some mention of Danish slave plantations in the Gold Coast established after the British banned the export of slaves and the role of indigenous providers of slaves to the Europeans such as the Asante, but not much else historically. Instead there was a considerably detailed discussion of slavery today in Ghana, particularly in the fishing industry. I had heard about the practice, but did not know much about the details. It turns out that fishermen buy boys from poor families with the promise of apprenticing them and then use them to untangle nets underwater and other dangerous activities. The boys themselves receive no monetary compensation and are often physically abused. The practice is illegal under Ghanaian law, but evidently still flourishes.

Sunday, December 02, 2012

Graduate Course on Ethnicity and Race

Next semester I will be teaching my first graduate course ever. It is on the history of ethnicity and race. Right now I am compiling the reading lists. I definitely want to include works by Valery Tishkov, Etienne Balibar, John Rex, George Fredrickson, and Walker Connor. I have quite a bit on the USSR and some stuff on South Africa. But, I don't have much on ethnicity in Ghana yet. I am going to try and rectify this deficit over break. I am also wondering how I should balance general works with those dealing with specific case studies. Altogether I am thinking of assigning ten books and ten journal articles.

Preparing to Grade Finals

My students took their final exams this last week. I have about 250 finals to mark over the Christmas break. Most of them from my 200 level historiography class. Grading is my least favorite part of being a lecturer. In particular I find complaints from students that did well, but not excellent regarding grades to be tiresome. According to all the official guidelines of the university a B+ is a good grade, yet every semester I have numerous complaints from students that it is a very bad grade and that only an A is acceptable. I am sure students would be happy with a system where everybody got an A and grades became totally meaningless. But, giving everybody an A defeats the whole purpose of grading. When students think that a B+ is the equivalent  of an F then the inflation of grade expectations is way too high. An honest question if there is anybody else involved in education anywhere in the world reading this. Do you have this problem and if you do how do you deal with it? Oh why do I even bother asking questions? I know absolutely nobody except maybe Walt is ever going to comment.

Saturday, December 01, 2012

African things (Western Sahara)

Today it is really hot and humid in equatorial Africa. On the way home from the book store my shirt became soaked with sweat. I purchased Toby Shelley, Endgame in the Western Sahara: What Future for Africa's Last Colony ? (London: Zed, 2004). I am trying to expand my knowledge about Africa and I know very little about the conflict in Western Sahara. All I know right now is that it was a Spanish colony and that the independence movement fighting against colonial rule was called the Polisario. When Spain withdrew from the colony, Morocco and Mauritania took control over the territory. The Polisario backed by Algeria continued to fight against the new occupiers and eventually Mauritania withdrew and Morocco occupied their former portion of Western Sahara. Last time I checked Morocco still occupied Western Sahara and the Polisario was still trying to achieve an independent Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. I should know an awful lot more after I finish reading Shelley's book.


The Soviet government conscripted a total of 20,711 people of which 20,493 (98.9%) were Russian-Germans into the labor army and sent to work at the ITL (Corrective Labor Camp) Bogoslovlag. Below are the main sources of these forced labors.

1941 - Removed from the ranks of the Red Army - 6,247
1942 - Conscripted from among Russian-Germans deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia according to GKO Order No. 1123 ss (10 January 1942) - 4,787
1942 - Conscripted from among Russian-Germans already living in Kazakhstan, Siberia, and other eastern regions of the USSR before 1941 according to GKO Order No. 1281 ss (14 February 1942) - 6,555
1942 - Removed from the ranks of the Red Army - 71
1942 - Sent from place of incarceration after completing sentence - 39
1942 - Transferred from other NKVD camps - 1,393
1942 - Other - 348
1942 - Total - 13,139
1943 - Sent from place of incarceration after completing sentence - 23
1943 - Transferred from other NKVD camps - 51
1943 - Other - 19
1943 - Total - 93
1944 - Sent from place of incarceration after completing sentence - 48
1944 - Transferred from other NKVD camps - 35
1944 - Other - 35
1944 - Total - 118
1945 - Sent from place of incarceration after completing sentence - 129
1945 - Transferred from other NKVD camps - 845
1945 - Other - 49
1945 - Total - 1,023
1946 - Sent from place of incarceration after completing sentence - 7
1946 - Transferred from other NKVD camps - 23
1946 - Other - 7
1946 - Total - 37
Total 1941-1946 - Removed from the ranks of the Red Army - 6,318
Total 1941-1946 - Conscripted from Russian-Germans deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia according to GKO Order No. 1123 ss (10 January 1942) - 4,787
Total 1941-1946 - Conscripted from Russian-Germans already living in Kazakhstan, Siberia, and other eastern regions of the USSR before 1941 according to GKO Order No. 1281 ss (14 February 1942) - 6,555
Total 1941-1946 - Sent from place of incarceration after completing sentence - 244
Total 1941-1946 - Transferred from other NKVD camps -2,347
Total 1941-1946 - Other - 458
Total 1941-1946 - 20,711

Source:  S.L. Razinkov, "Sotsial'nyi portret trudarmeitsev, mobilizovannykh v lageria NKVD na Urale v 1941-1946 gg," in A.A. German (ed.), Nachal'nyi period Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny i deportatsiia rossiiskikh nemtsev: vzgliady i otsenki cherez 70 let (Moscow: MSNK-press, 2011), pp. 668-681. See especially, table no. 1, pp. 668-669 and table  no. 2, pp. 669-670.

Friday, November 30, 2012

Sudeten Germans and Palestinians

The only European country to vote against recognition of Palestinian statehood was the Czech Republic. I wonder how much this has to do with the common and persistent refusal of both the Czechs and the  Israelis to come to terms with the brutal expulsions and atrocities they both carried out in the 1940s? The Czech Republic like Israel is a state whose modern incarnation is founded upon massive ethnic cleansing. Near the end of WWII the Czechs violently expelled the vast majority of ethnic Germans and Hungarians living in Czechoslovakia. The forced expulsion of ethnic Germans from Czechoslovakia involved a number of massacres perpetrated against civilians as well as sexual assaults against women. It thus closely paralleled the Israeli ethnic cleansing of the Palestinians just a few years later.

How many Russian-Germans served in the Labor Army?

Waves of Conscription of Russian-Germans into the Labor Army

August 1941-January 1942 - 20,800
January 1942 - June 1942 - 138,400
October 1942 - August 1943 - 153,500
Total - 312,700

Note these numbers are incomplete. The total number of Russian-Germans conscripted into the labor army from August 1941 until the end of January 1946 exceeds 316,000. Of which 182,000 served in NKVD camps (ITLs) and 133,000 served in civilian commissariats (the numbers are rounded and thus only total 315,000). Other figures are higher. GULag Chief Nasedkin in one document placed the number of Germans, Finns, Romanians, and others mobilized into the labor army from 1942-1944 at 400,000 of which 220,000 worked in NKVD camps and 180,000 in civilian commissariats. Determining the exact national breakdown of the men and women in the labor army is difficult. But, the lowest percentage of Germans among the labor army contingent at any of the camps where the data has been examined is 87% at Bakalstroi (Cheliabmetallurgstroi). Thus it is possible that the number of Russian-Germans to serve in the labor army might have been as many as 350,000.

Source: V.M. Kirillov and N.V. Matveeva, "Trudmobilizovannye nemtsy na Urale: sostoianie i novye aspekty issledovaniia problemy," in A.A. German (ed.), Nachal'nyi period Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny i deportatsiia rossiiskikh nemtsev: vzgliady i otsenki cherez 70 let (Moscow: MSNK-press, 2011), pp. 627-655.

Congratulations Palestine

Yesterday the UN upgraded Palestine to non member state, a status which will allow them to bring Israeli officials before the International Criminal Court. All the "progressives" in the US government including UN Ambassador Susan Rice, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, and Senator Chuck Schumer of New York are strongly protesting the decision. It has been a long standing "progressive" policy of the US Democratic Party to support Israeli apartheid. One more reason why I am not a "progressive." I support equal rights and national self determination for the Palestinian people.

Thursday, November 29, 2012

My Sound Bite on Rice

The more I read about Susan Rice's wretched record on Africa where she has quite literally facilitated and tried to cover up the mass robbery, rape, and murder of people in the Congo by the armies and proxies of Rwanda and Uganda the more I am convinced she is morally unfit to be Secretary of State.

Wednesday, November 28, 2012

Rwanda as Africa's Israel

I have been trying to read up and understand the recent history of Congo. It is pretty complex, so I still do not completely understand it. One thing that is clear is that the history is intimately tied up with the history of Rwanda and to a lesser extent Uganda, both of which with US and UK support have consistently intervened in Congo since 1996. Their aggression which has included widespread pillaging and rape as well as killings has a number of causes. But, it does appear that the frequently made comparisons to Rwanda and Israel do have some merit. Both are states where a minority subjected to genocide, Jews in Israel and Tutsis in Rwanda, control the state. They are also both demographic minorities in those states if you include the territories occupied and controlled by Israel and displaced refugees. In both cases the state draws much of its international legitimacy from representing a group victimized by genocide and in both cases these states have parlayed this moral capital into massive and unconditional support from the US. In particular the US Democratic Party has been supportive of both Israel and Rwanda in every crime they have committed. The first military intervention in Congo by Rwanda took place in 1996 and the second in 1998 both with the support of the Clinton administration. The International Rescue Committee estimates that this second war cost 1.7 million lives by 2000 including 200,000 direct deaths from violence. Now Rwanda is again intervening in Congo and destabilizing the country to the detriment of the indigenous population through its support of the M23 militia. Like Israel, Rwanda has basically gotten anything it wants from the US. The Obama administration has continued the Clinton policy of facilitating Rwandan aggression against Congo. US ambassador to the UN Susan Rice who is currently being touted as the next secretary of state has been one of the key figures in the US efforts to provide cover for the aggressive behavior towards Congo by the Rwandan regime. I realize that all US "progressives" support Obama in everything he does and that all US "progressives" support the nomination of Susan Rice for Secretary of State. But, US "progressives" have been notoriously bad for the people of Africa. Yet one more reason I am not a "progressive."

Tuesday, November 27, 2012

Review of Millions Cried...No One Listened

I have now watched five of the six disks in Millions Cried...No One Listened which is a documentary series produced by Ann Morrison on the mistreatment and expulsion of ethnic Germans in East Central Europe in the immediate years after World War II. Most of the series consists of interviews of Donauschwaben survivors from the Banat and Batschka in what was Yugoslavia. There are also some interviews with Donauschwaben from Hungary as well as ethnic Germans from Zipser and the Sudetenland in what was Czechoslovakia, and some representatives from East Prussia and other areas. On the whole, however, the series is largely titled towards the story of the Donauschwaben in Yugoslavia and to a lesser extent the ethnic Germans in Czechoslovakia. I personally would have liked to have seen more on Germans from Pomerania, Upper Silesia, Siebenburgen, and of course the various regions of the USSR. But, it is of course impossible to cover the persecution and expulsion of all the ethnic German communities in the region in a little over six hours.

The  interviews represent very good primary sources dealing with the plight of the ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. I have become increasingly more cognizant of the importance of oral sources and the severe limitations of government archives in recent years. Certainly in terms of explaining the experiences of individuals subjected to ethnic cleansing and internment in concentration camps, oral sources are generally superior to archival records in expressing the truth. The accord reached at Potsdam by the US, UK, and USSR for instance describes the mass expulsion of 14 million ethnic Germans from their homes during this time as an "orderly and humane" transfer. The reality of the expulsions were neither orderly or humane something that comes through clearly in the interviews.

The structure and organization of the documentary, however, suffers from an attempt to cover all the expulsions in one grand narrative divided by chronology rather then breaking them up into chapters based upon the fate of Germans in each individual territory. A lot of the documentary is repetitive and the organization of these interviews into a single coherent narrative is marred by trying to cover multiple areas at once. In particular the switching back and forth between survivors from Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and other areas is somewhat confusing. Since the series has six disks it would have better in my opinion to separate the stories of the various German communities by country. That is devote one disk to Yugoslavia, one disk to Czechoslovakia, and one disk to Hungary. The eastern areas of Germany itself, Poland, Romania, and especially the USSR are distinctly underrepresented particularly in comparison with the very large number of interviews of Donauschwaben from the Yugoslav Batschka and Banat. I suspect this has to do largely with the source base available to the film maker.

This, however, in no way detracts from the excellent nature of the interviews themselves as an invaluable source of information. The story of the ethnic Germans from Yugoslavia and their brutal mistreatment by Tito's government in the years immediately after World War II has received little coverage and is an important component of the modern history of the Balkans. This documentary lets the survivors themselves tell that story.

If there are to be more films in this series made I would strongly recommend that the very large Russian-German communities that have arrived in Germany in the last couple of decades from Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, and Central Asia be interviewed about their experiences in the USSR. There is one interview with a Volga German on the first disk. But, in the subsequent disks the fate of one and half million Russian Germans including the over 200,000 forcibly repatriated back to the USSR during 1945 and 1946 is almost completely neglected. Obviously not everything can be covered in a single project and the fate of ethnic Germans in East Central Europe and the USSR is a huge topic. Nevertheless, the documentary series itself makes claims to covering a much grander narrative than just the persecution of the Donauschwaben.

Despite these minor structural criticisms, Ann Morrison is to be highly commended for the hard work she did in conducting these interviews and making them all available in an easy to view format. While many German communities such as those in the USSR, Romania, and Poland are largely lacking from this first collection, it does do an excellent job of covering Yugoslavia. Hungary and Czechoslovakia are covered less thoroughly.  I definitely recommend the film as an excellent collection of oral primary source material on the history of ethnic Germans in East Central Europe. There is nothing comparable out there in terms of the breadth and depth of the interviews, particularly for the Donauschwaben from Yugoslavia.

Monday, November 26, 2012

My Knowledge on Midwives and Family Planning in Ghana has Increased from Zero

I just finished copy editing an MPhil thesis on midwives and birth control in Ghana. I now know a lot more about midwifery, family planning, and female reproductive health in Ghana than I did this morning. Which is to say I know a tiny bit as opposed to absolutely nothing. For some reason, not only am I getting a lot of the honors thesis and graduate work on ethnicity to supervise and edit, but now I am getting a big chunk of those dealing with gender issues. Fortunately, I just had to copy edit the dissertation I went over today because my knowledge about the content of the work was basically zero this morning and it has only increased due to reading the particular work I was editing. But, I understand the history of midwives is a hot topic in the US.

Sunday, November 25, 2012

Current Reading on Congo

I am currently reading Thomas Turner, The Congo Wars: Conflict, Myth & Reality (London: Zed Books, 2007). A couple of things that stand out in the first couple of chapters. First, the author is rightfully critical of Marxist scholars for ignoring or at least seriously downplaying the role of ethnicity, race, and nationalism in favor of class. I would say that this criticism applies to everything and not just Congo. But, it is good to see a confirmation of my own observations. Second, the role of foreign powers is greatly highlighted and the author avoids the usual leftist cliche of placing all the blame on the US or the even more usual leftist cliche of placing all the blame on Republicans in the US. There seems to have been a complete rehabilitation of LBJ recently by American liberals based solely on his membership in the Democratic Party. But, it should be remembered that it was his administration that helped put Mobutu in power in 1965. The Belgian paratroopers that landed at Kisangani were dropped from US planes (Turner, p. 34). The Canadians and even more so the Belgians up to the present day have also been major factors in the neo-colonial exploitation of Congo (on the role of Canadian companies see Turner, pp. 39 and 47). How such a small state as Belgium has been able to consistently cause so much damage to a large and distant state like Congo is somewhat of a mystery to me. But, given that the Belgians murdered more Congolese than Hitler killed Jews, the relative dearth of denunciations of Belgium versus Germany in scholarship and popular culture does point to a persistent structural racism among left wing intellectuals in the West. Other powers that have been involved in Congo include Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi, Zimbabwe, Angola, and Namibia. I was not previously aware of the role of Angola or Namibia. Turner consistently reinforces the point that the conflict in Congo is intimately tied up with the history of Rwanda. I will have a more thorough review of the book when I have finished reading it. But, so far it has been quite informative.

Saturday, November 24, 2012

Good News on the Cedi

It looks like the cedi is finally gaining rather than losing value. Between now and January the cedi may actually increase in value relative to the US dollar by as much as 3%.  This appears to largely be due to intervention by the central bank to prop up the value of cedi. In the first half of the year the cedi lost a lot of value, about 20%. It has since August been making a comeback. The total loss of value for the cedi for 2012 versus 2011 in comparison to the US dollar will be about 11-12%. If the current increase in value can continue into 2013 I should be in good shape.

The tendency for the cedi to lose value against the US dollar is a long standing problem in Ghana. It is a result of the need to import a huge amount of goods that need to be paid for in US dollars thereby depressing the price of the cedi as there is a much higher demand to exchange cedis for dollars than dollars for cedis. Attempts to remedy this problem by import substitution in the 1960s and 70s largely failed. Although Ghana does produce very high quality and inexpensive goods such as pharmaceuticals, it does not produce enough of them to meet 100% of domestic demand. The alternative strategy which worked well in East Asia would be to gear the economy towards the export of manufactured goods to generate the hard currency needed to finance Ghana's current imports. While the current monetary interventions to increase the value of the cedi are absolutely necessary, in the long run the currency's stability can only be maintained by fixing the imbalance between imports and exports. Ghana needs to move beyond merely the export of raw materials such as cocoa, oil, and gold. It needs to engage in value added manufacturing for export which can generate more hard currency than than it spends on imports.

Source: Reuters

Friday, November 23, 2012

Soviet ethnos theory, international law, and why Francine Hirsch is wrong

Before I had my big meeting I was reading up on Soviet ethnos theory. In particular I was reading the work of Sergei Sokolovski. But, Valery Tishkov and Peter Skalnik also arrive at the same conclusion. Soviet ethnic theory has always been primordialist. That means that in western terms natsionalnost in the USSR has always been identical to the concept of race.Virginia Tilley et at in describing the concept of racial discrimination in international law notes that what is important is not that it be based upon genetics as people like Hirsch wrongly insist, but that the discriminated against category be primordial. A requirement that would definitely include all discrimination in the USSR based upon natsionalnost.

The ICTR [International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda] observed that, for all these identities, the protected group should be 'stable and permanent': membership is normally acquired by birth and is continuous, immutable, and not usually challengeable by its members. This seemingly 'primordial' quality  - that is, the identity is perceived to be passed down through generations and therefore to be mostly immutable in group members - is thus the common denominator of identities based on race, colour, descent, and national and ethnic origin: that is , the groups cited by ICERD [International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination] as being targets of racial discrimination (Tilley et. al, p. 156)..

 There is no doubt in my mind that Soviet ethnic theory and practice dating back to its origins under Shirokogorov (the same man frequently cited by Afrikaner volkekundiges to justify apartheid) is essentially a racial theory. It posits that ethnoses are primordial in the sense described by Tilley et al above and this does not differ in any substantial way from the way in which 'race' functioned in apartheid South Africa. The claim by Hirsch that racial discrimination only exists if the categories targeted are biologically based rather than ethnic based has been rejected by scholars of ethnicity and race not dealing with the USSR for decades.   As Tilley et al notes in clear contrast to Hirsch,

Third, no absolute, measurable, and consistent criteria exist for distinguishing one of these identities [the previous sentence identifies them as 'race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin'] from another, as the labels are frequently interchangeable and their use may be politicized." (Tilley et al, p. 157).

That is just because the Soviets call 'race' natsionalnost does not make it something other than race. There is no clear and hard line separating ethnicity and race the way Hirsch falsely claims. Primordial ethnicity is essentially one of the definitions of 'race' and discrimination on this basis is legally under International Law considered to be 'racial discrimination.'

Source: Virginia Tilley et al, Occupation, Colonialism, Apartheid?: A re-assessment of Israel's practices in the occupied Palestinian territories under international law. (Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council, 2009).

UG Publishing Project

Today I had a seven hour meeting about the University of Ghana publishing project. This project involves each department putting out a collection of essays by its faculty. I have already submitted a draft of an article on Blacks in the USSR under the title, "Is there a Black Eurasia?: Ghanaian and other Diasporic African Populations in the USSR in Comparative Perspective." It still needs a little bit of editing before the final submission, but it is basically done. My conclusion is that there was no Black Diaspora in the USSR only Black people since they lacked some of the key elements needed to constitute a diaspora. Most notably they did not have any real connection to Africa.

Thursday, November 22, 2012

Fufu and Goat

Today for Thanksgiving Dinner I had fufu with goat in ground nut soup. It was pretty good. But, there was nothing out of the ordinary about it.

Wednesday, November 21, 2012

Three Reasons Why I call myself a Right Winger and not a "Progressive"

1. I do not support Israeli apartheid and colonialism.
2. I do not believe that Soviet, Czech, and Polish crimes against ethnic German men, women, and children and others were morally justified by the Nazi crimes against Jews.
3. I do not worship Barack Obama.

An Answer to Stalinist Revisionists

Apparently the new Stalinist line is that ethnic Russians suffered just as much during WWII as the Russian-Germans and therefore Stalin did nothing wrong by deporting the population to special settlement restrictions in Siberia and Kazakhstan and then mobilizing them into the labor army. First of all it is simply not true that the losses are comparable. This has a quantitative element. The percentage of ethnic Germans and others to die due to deliberate policies of the Soviet government of sending them to areas with poor climatic conditions, using them for inhumane labor, and refusing to provide them with adequate material goods was higher than the overall death rate of the USSR during the war by a significant margin. As Viktor Krieger notes the demographic losses of the Russian-Germans from 1941-1945 were between 316,000 and 350,000 people or 22-25% (Krieger, p. 150). Ediev estimates that a full 228,000 of this loss consisted of excess deaths or 19.17% of the Russian-German population. For other deported nationalities such as the Chechens the number was considerably greater. The deportations and poor conditions in special settlements killed over 125,000 or 30.76% of the Chechen population (Ediev, table 104, p. 294). In comparison only 14% of the total Soviet population died during the war and this figure includes over three million people who like the Russian-Germans and Chechens died as a direct result of Soviet repression not the war with Germany.

Second and more importantly is the qualitative element. The Stalinist line that the Russian-Germans did not suffer any more than ethnic Russians is literally the moral equivalent of noting that six million Germans died during WWII so their suffering was equal to that of the Jews. It completely ignores the fact that war deaths and the death of civilians due to deportation and forced labor are not at all comparable. The Soviet government not the German government was wholly and 100% responsible for every single death that occurred in its camps and areas of internal exile. Trying to say otherwise is no different from those Holocaust deniers who blame the death of Jews from typhus in Nazi camps on the Allies. The special settlers and labor army conscripts were wards of the NKVD and the Soviet state had an obligation to provide for their material needs. The death of special settlers, labor army conscripts, and GULag prisoners in the USSR was morally no different from the almost identical deaths from malnutrition, disease, and exhaustion in Nazi ghettos and camps.


D. Ediev, Demograficheskie poteri deportirovannykh narodov SSSR (Stavropol': ARGUS, 2003).

V. Krieger, Rein, Volga, Irtysh: Iz istorii nemtsev Tsentral'noi Azii (Almaty: DAIK-Press, 2006).

Thank You Mother Africa

Tomorrow is Thanksgiving in the US. Here in Ghana it is just another work day. Like last year I give thanks to Mother Africa for giving me a job and a career as an historian. Far too few people appreciate what Africa has done for the world. But, I know what she has done for me.

Tuesday, November 20, 2012

More Thoughts on Gaza

In the long run, meaning the next couple of decades, I do not see anyway that Israel can ensure its permanent survival. It can only delay the inevitable day when there is no longer a Jewish state in Palestine like there used to be a White state in South Africa. The Israelis and their supporters have guaranteed that there can be no long term territorial compromise between such an entity and the indigenous Arab population of the Levant. This of course puts Israel where South Africa was in 1961. A year when it was just starting to become clear that most of the world was not going to tolerate the continued existence of the RSA as an apartheid state forever. Outside the US most of the world's population particularly in Europe and the Muslim countries is no longer willing to abide the existence of Israel as an openly racist state oppressing millions of Palestinian Arabs. Creating a series of Palestinian Bantustans, which can then be bombed at will like Gaza, is no longer an acceptable solution to the conflict for people outside the US and Israel. Eventually even in the US Israel's support will be diminished as most Americans come to the realization that supporting Israel does serious damage to America's reputation abroad. Unfortunately, in the meantime the Israelis have proven themselves both able and willing to inflict incredible human suffering upon the Palestinians.

Russian-German Mortality Calculations

In 1949 the NKVD did a recount of special settlers. It listed the numbers initially deported and then the number present in 1949. In total the Soviet government claimed there were 3,332,589 people under special settlement restrictions from 1941-1948. In 1949 there were 2,275,900 people still living under special settlement restrictions. The difference was accounted for mainly by the high death rates among deportees from the North Caucasus (144,704) and Crimea (44,125) and the release of 810,614 former kulaks during this time. It lists the number of Russian Germans initially deported as 1,024,072 and the number recounted as 1,069,041. For many of the contingents listed there is also the number of recorded deaths between the initial deportation and 1 July 1948. For the Germans instead there is a note saying that an additional 210,600 repatriated Germans had been added to the special settler rolls in 1945. This means that the actual number of Russian-Germans classified as special settlers from 1941-1945 in the USSR totaled 1,235,322 not the 1,024,072 listed as initially deported. The difference between this total and the number of Russian-Germans counted as special settlers in 1949 is 166,281 people or 13.5% of those deported and repatriated (doc. 40, p. 108). Most of these missing undoubtedly died, although some were released for various reasons. An NKVD report from October 1948 lists the number of recorded Russian-German releases at 37,784 and deaths at 45,275 although this latter figure is grossly incomplete. It also lists 25,792 births which would further increase the gap between the number of Russian-Germans condemned to special settlement restrictions and those alive in 1949 (doc. 35, p. 101). Incorporating these figures into the calculation leaves a total of missing and dead for the Russian Germans of 154,289 people or 12.5%. This figure is low because it does not take into account the two contingents formed from ethnic Germans already living in Siberia and Kazakhstan before 1941. The addition of Russian Germans classified as "local" and "mobilized", which for some reason are not mentioned in the document tabulating the 1949 recount,  substantially increases the number placed under special settlement restrictions. In 1953 "local" Germans numbered 111,234  and "mobilized" Germans 48,582 special settlers (doc. 52, pp. 118-119).  Thus the number of missing and dead Russian Germans between 1941 and 1949 is over 300,000 or about a quarter of the population. A figure that fits in well with the estimates of excess deaths within the group during this time at between 150,000-250,000 people.

Source: N.F. Bugai and A.N. Kotsonis, (eds)., "Obiazat' NKVD SSSR...Vyselit' grekov" (Moscow: INSAN, 1999).

Saturday, November 17, 2012


I know that none of the "hip" and "radical" academics that dominate the US will ever demand that any action ever be taken against Israel for her crimes. Right now as Israel bombs Gaza and kills innocent children liberal and leftist blogs like CT are completely silent. The AAUP and people like Claire Potter, "the Tenured Radical" still oppose BDS claiming it is a violation of "academic freedom." Potter in fact spreads the deliberate lie about BDS that it requires the boycott of individual scholars rather than institutions and is therefore different than the academic boycott of South Africa. It is not any different and Potter knows that she is lying. The liberal left establishment that controls the US Democratic Party, media, and academia has long given unconditional support to Israel.  The blood of Palestinian children is on their hands and they have no shame.

Friday, November 16, 2012


The semester is almost over now. I had a four hour meeting this morning and now all I have left to do is give final exams. Part of the meeting was our end of the semester departmental meeting. It will not be the last one, but before I came here the department was close to death due to a lack of faculty. Since then our department head has literally rebuilt the History Department here and recently won an award from the university for this achievement. When I first came here as the first new faculty member in this resurrection there were only two full time permanent history lecturers. Now there are seven. The difference the extra four faculty make in the department is incredible. Through great effort the head of our department quite literally resurrected the history department from near death. I am proud to have been part of that process and maybe somewhere in a footnote to a work of history in the future it will be noted that I was the first new faculty member to arrive at Legon in this resurrection, a small, but important step in the development of Africa.

Sunday, November 11, 2012

New Book Store

Across the street from the university they are putting together a new mall. The anchor is the Max Mart on the ground floor. But, on the second floor up there is a huge book store with an incredible selection. The prices are also reasonable. Fiction costs 12 cedis and non-fiction 10 cedis. I purchased five books there yesterday. Spending 54 cedis was a bit of splurge for me, but the more I think about it the more I think it was worth it. I am used to paying 2.50 cedis for used books at the University book store, but the supply is drying up. Currently I am reading Paul French's North Korea: The Paranoid Peninsula - A Modern History (London: Zed, 2004). For 10 cedis (five dollars) I got a pretty good deal. I see that Amazon UK is selling the book for 57 pounds or the equivalent of 230 cedis ($115). I never understood how prices could be so high in the UK. For these type of prices to make sense the average starting lecturer in the UK would have to make 200,000 pounds a year.

Friday, November 09, 2012

Classes are finally over

Today I taught my last class of the semester. It was historiography, a 200 level class that other lecturers in the past have found frustrating to teach. I think I did a fairly good job of restructuring the class to be thematic rather than author based and to be more Afrocentric and less Eurocentric than it has been in the past. Unfortunately, the students were not very familiar with Pan-African authors either. Nobody in the class had read Walter Rodney's How Europe Underdeveloped Africa or Frantz Fanon's The Wretched of the Earth for instance. But, at least by using more African examples I think I was able to connect better with the students.In the future this class will be moved up to 300 and hopefully by that time the students will have a better basic knowledge of some of the more notable works dealing with African history.

Palestinian Statehood

The Palestinian Authority is now applying to be recognized by the UN as a nonmember observer state. The recognition of Palestine as a state by the UN would allow them to take cases against Israel in the International Criminal Court. Israel is for instance currently in violation of the 1973 UN convention outlawing the practice of apartheid. I seriously doubt that Obama in his second term will do anything to support human rights and national self determination in Palestine. But, if he wanted to do something that would be remembered internationally as having some positive historical significance he could break with AIPAC and support the Palestinian move to be recognized as a state and bring criminal charges against Israeli officials before the ICC. There have been a lot of crimes committed since 1948.

Source: AP and Mondoweiss

The continuing existence of kings under a republican form of government

Today I read through an MPhil dissertation on an Asante chieftaincy dispute. The parallel structure of traditional leadership which is monarchical in nature with a national republican government and the coexistence of customary law and legislated law creates an odd dualism. Ghana is a republic and yet it has a lot of kings, queen mothers, and other royal figures. Normally if a country is a republic it has no kings or royal figures.

Thursday, November 08, 2012

More on Camps in the Urals

Most of the Russian-German men mobilized into the labor army worked in Corrective Labor Camps (ITL) rather than for civilian commissariats. While there were labor army contingents at labor camps in Siberia, Kazakhstan, and other places, the largest number worked in the Urals. The Russian-Germans in the labor army formed a very large contingent of the forced laborers in some of these camps ranging from 9% to 86.8% of the work force. Unlike the prisoners that made up most of the remainder of the labor force at these camps the labor army conscripts were never charged or tried for any crimes. Instead they were sentenced to indefinite terms of forced labor under conditions nearly identical to those of prisoners solely on the basis of their German ancestry. Below is a list of the main camps in the Urals with Russian-German labor army contingents in the spring and summer of 1942. I have noted the number of Russian-German labor army men in each camp and the percentage of the total work force they constituted.

Bakallag - 26,480 (86.8%)
Ivdel'lag- 12,899 (40.4%)
Sevurallag - 8,441 (46.3%)
Bogoslovlag - 12,311 (42.9%)
Solikamlag - 2,537 (56%)
Tagillag- 3,371 (9%)
Tavdinlag - 1,918 (46.7%)

Source: N.V. Mateeva "Vliianie uslovii truda i zhizni  na vnuternnii mir rossiiskikh nemtsev-trudarmeitsev v gody Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny," in A.A. German (ed.)., Grazhdanskaia identichnost' i vnuterenii mir rossiiskikh nemtsev v gody Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny i v istoricheskoi pamiati potomkov (Moscow: MSNK Press, 2011),  pp. 145-154.

Last Week of Classes for the Semester

This is the last week of teaching before final exams. I have one last lecture here at Legon on Friday afternoon. I finished up at City Campus yesterday. The drive in the middle of the afternoon the last couple of weeks was making me car sick due to the intensity of the sun so I am glad I do not have to make the trip again for a while now. Honestly the sun on the equator is a lot more brutal than it is in more temperate climates like Europe or the US.

Wednesday, November 07, 2012

Estonian Forced Laborers in Arkhangelsk Oblast

During the first Soviet occupation of Estonia in 1940-1941, the RKKA (Workers' and Peasants' Red Army) forcibly conscripted some 40,000 Estonian men in clear violation of international law. These men were then formed into work columns and sent to various areas of the USSR for forced labor. The Soviet government employed them on the construction of air fields and roads and the felling of trees as well as other work. Memento has compiled a list of 4,586 Estonians sent to work in forced labor columns in Arkhangelsk during this time. It is estimated that a total of 9,000 Estonians worked in forced labor detachments in the region in the fall of 1941. By February 1942, a total of 7,135 Estonians worked in the Port of Arkhangelsk. Another 4,000 Estonians worked in Kotlas in the lumber industry at this time. Material conditions for these men were very poor. They lacked proper winter clothing and food. Hunger and dysentery were both common among the labor columns. In total over 17,000 Estonians worked in Arkhangelsk Oblast at some point during WWII before being moved to the front, being demobilized, or dying. The lack of winter clothing and proper food constituted the main reasons for demobilization as invalids and death among the mobilized Estonians.

Source: T.F. Mel'nik, "Arkhangel'skaia oblast v 1940-e gody, kak region po ispol'zovaniiu prinuditel'nogo truda poliakov, estontsev, karelo-finnov, nemtsev," in A.A. German, (ed.), Nachal'nyi period Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny i deportatsiia rossiiskikh nemtsev : vzgliady i otsenki cherez 70 let (Moscow: MSNK-Press, 2011),  pp. 562-582.

Election Predictions (Ghana)

Ghana will hold elections next month for president. I am predicting that the incumbent president, John Mahama of the NDC will win reelection. His main opponent is Nana Akufo-Addo of the NPP. It is possible that Papa Kwesi Nduom of the PPP could force a run off by depriving either the NDC or NPP of a full 51% of the vote. There are a total of eight candidates running for the office.

Tuesday, November 06, 2012

Recent Happenings

Yesterday and today the office again had no electricity for part of the day. Having a black out every single Monday and Tuesday is starting to get annoying. It is bad enough I have no Internet or printer in my office, I would at least like light and air. But, they restored our power faster this week than last week.

Today I saw a presentation on one of the ethnic conflicts in northern Ghana. There seems to be a long standing pattern of more organized and centralized groups lording it over less well organized groups. Actually I think this is true for all ethnic conflicts. In cases where formally repressed groups are able to sufficiently organize to throw out their oppressors the conflict generally ends.

I have been informed that the conference paper I gave at Winneba will be in print as part of a book on German colonialism in West Africa due out before the end of the year. The book is currently in press in Germany. It will be my second publication dealing with Africa.

Monday, November 05, 2012

The Blog as a Private Journal Once Again

This blog has never had more than a dozen readers. So I can not really say that anything I put here has ever gone out to a larger audience. It has not. Instead it has remained material that for the most part that has only been of interest to myself.  My parents and maybe ten other people at most see what I post here and the rest of the world ignores it. I have realized that what I write here is for my own benefit, a private journal or notebook in cyberspace and not any actual transfer of information to other people. If I try and justify posting on this blog as anything other than writing for myself then it is just not worth it. The audience is far too small and I can communicate with most of them better by phoning them.

The Labor Army and Three Camps in the Urals

The first number next to the name of each camp is the total number of Russian-Germans mobilized into the labor army during WWII and sent to that camp. The second number is the total number of deaths among Russian-Germans in the labor army at that camp that have to date been verified. The actual total number may be greater. Also the number does not include the huge number of Russian-Germans released from the camps who died shortly afterwards from emaciation, disease, and other causes related directly to their stay in the camps. In the case of both Bakallag and Bogoslov the number of Russian-Germans discharged from the camp as invalids exceeded 30%. Most of these people died in addition to the recorded numbers below. The final number is the percentage of Russian-Germans in the labor army to die at each camp. The percentages have been rounded to the nearest whole digit. Bear in mind that the age distribution for those mobilized in the camps is from 15-55 for men and 16-45 for women so the number of deaths from old age should be zero. The overwhelming majority of all these deaths are excess deaths caused directly by conditions in the camps.

Bakallag  - 42,902 / 6,288 / 15%
Bogoslov - 20,711 / 3,734 / 18%
Tagilllag   -   6,511 /630/ 10%

Source: V.M. Kirillov and N.V. Matveeva, "Trudmobilizovannye nemtsy na Urale: sostoianie i novye aspekty issledovanniia problemy," in A.A. German (ed.), Nachal'nyi period Velikoi Otechesvennoi voiny i deportatsiia rossiiskikh nemtsev : vzgliady i otsenki cherez 70 let, (Moscow: MSNK-Press, 2011),   pp. 627-655.

Sunday, November 04, 2012

Current Reading (Ethnic Conflict in Ghana)

I am currently reading up on the history of the various ethnic groups that make up modern Ghana. In particular I have been reading about the Ewe and Konkomba. The Ewe live in the southern Volta region and are split between Ghana, Togo, and Benin and had a long lived, but ultimately failed movement for unification in the last century. The Konkomba live in the north and  have had violent conflicts in the last several decades with the Nanumba, Gonja, and Dagomba. I am almost positive nobody will leave any comments, but just in case please consider this an open thread on ethnic conflict in Ghana.

Saturday, November 03, 2012

Current Writing Project

Okay I did not get very many suggestions on my blog post asking for ideas on a new article project. So Friday I went back to working on the article comparing South African apartheid and the Soviet special settlement regime for deported nationalities under Stalin. I had an article published on this topic this year in Human Rights Review, but the topic is big enough that I think it can support a few more. The problem of course is that the official orthodox line is that there was never any institutional or official racism in the USSR because people like Francine Hirsch believe we should only judge the Soviet Union by the regime's own definitions. Of course if we did that with apartheid South Africa we would also conclude that "separate development" was not racist, but merely a political policy justified by security concerns just like Hirsch and Weiner portray Stalin's policies towards people like the Volga Germans and Crimean Tatars. Unfortunately while the works of people like George Fredrickson and John Rex are considered mainstream for analyzing the history of racial discrimination in places like South Africa or the US they are completely rejected by the US clique that dominates the study of Soviet nationalities policy. Instead people like Hirsch and Weiner favor a definition of race that most scholars discarded before 1965 and the formulation of the ICERD. So getting the second article published will be just as difficult as the first one was. It took me over two years to get it into print.

Thursday, November 01, 2012

North Korean Labor Camp no. 22

According to the Washington Post the North Korean government has shut down camp no. 22. It is speculated that the reason is because the mines in the camp were running out of coal. North Korea has closed labor camps before including camps no. 11 an no. 13. Camp no. 22 was the largest labor camp in North Korea. It is estimated that camp no. 22 held 50,000 prisoners of which 30,000 worked in coal mining. The total camp population of North Korea is estimated by Amnesty International at 200,000 or more than 8 per a thousand people in the entire population. Camp no. 22 thus held about a quarter of North Korea's prison population. Getting information on North Korea's labor camp system is not easy. It is an even more closed society than was the USSR and most of what we know is from defectors and refugees. But, I am struck by the casual use of lots of large round numbers in the article. There really is no way to verify the number of prisoners in even individual camps yet alone in the entire system. The number is undoubtedly very large, but eyewitness accounts while very important for providing information not available in archives are not a good source for estimates of large populations. In fact population and statistical data is one of the areas where archival sources tend to be better than oral sources. In the case of the USSR the actual size of the Gulag system turned out to be considerably smaller than had been originally estimated using the same type of sources now used with regards to North Korea. This is not to suggest that the North Korean labor camp population is likely to be significantly smaller than 200,000. But, rather to note that the real population could be either much greater or much smaller than our current estimates. The magnitude of the prison population in North Korea is still an historical black hole.

Wednesday, October 31, 2012

Death and Life in the Labor Army

At the same time that the Nazi regime was engaged in the mass gassing of Jews in death camps the Stalin regime was busy rounding up every single able bodied adult of German ancestry in the USSR for slave labor. The Soviet government condemned hundreds of thousands of men and women to work under conditions that resulted in tens of thousands of them dying from hunger, exhaustion, and exposure solely because their ancestors had immigrated to the Russian Empire from Central Europe.  During 1942 and 1943 the Soviet government forcibly mobilized over 316,000 ethnic Germans into the labor army to perform forced labor. As a result of the inhumane conditions in the labor army over 60,000 or nearly a fifth of those conscripted perished during and soon after the war (German and Silantjewa, p. 308). Below I have reproduced an excerpt from Orlando Figes The Whisperers describing the conditions experienced by Rudolf Gotman in the labor army.

Rudolf Gotman was born in 1922 to a Lutheran German family from the Crimea. The Gotmans were categorized as 'kulaks' and exiled to the wilderness near Arkhangelsk in 1931.  When the war broke out Rudolf was picked up by the NKVD as a 'German national' (in fact his ancestors had lived in Russia since 1831) and sent to work in the coal mines of the Donbass. There he was conscripted by a labour brigade made up of a hundred young men from 'German' families and sent to work in a food-processing factory in Solikamsk, in the northern Urals. In the autumn of of 1942, the men were sent to a nearby logging camp to fell timber. They lived in barracks, slept on wooden benches, and were given starvation-level rations. Made to work in freezing temperatures, more than half the brigade members died in the first winter. The NKVD guards, who supervised the brigade, showed no mercy for the 'German' boys and called them 'Fascist scum'. Rudolf survived by virtue of the fact that he was injured and taken to hospital: otherwise he would have died from exhaustion. He remained in the labour army for the next fourteen years. He worked in factories, Soviet farms and construction sites and was even sent to the Caucasus to build dachas for Stalin, Molotov and Beria. He did not receive any pay until 1948, and was not allowed to to leave the labour army until 1956, as part of the general amnesty for Gulag prisoners. (Figes, p. 424).

May those who died rest in peace.


Orlando Figes, The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia, (London: Penguin Books, 2008).

A. German and O. Silantjewa, (eds.), "Vyselit' s treskom". Ochevidtsy i issledovateli o tragedii rossiiskikh nemtsev / "Fortjagen muss man sie". Zeitzeugen und Forscher berichten uber die Tragodie der Russlanddeutschen, (Moscow: MSNK-Press, 2011).

Tuesday, October 30, 2012

Ghana off of FATF blacklist

Ghana has now been removed from the list of countries blacklisted by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) for having weak laws and institutions aimed at preventing money laundering and the financing of terrorism. The FATF is a international body and it placed Ghana on its blacklist in February of this year. It is expected that the removal of Ghana from the blacklist will make international financial transactions involving Ghana both cheaper and faster.

Source: Daily Graphic

It is again hot in Africa

This morning I was already sweating profusely by 8:30 and it is only going to get hotter from now until about March. Fortunately, so far this week there have been no electrical problems so I can keep cool in my office which has air conditioning and a ceiling fan.

Monday, October 29, 2012

Anytime you need a particular piece of technology it will be broken at the first two places you look.

Sometimes I feel like I am living the entire corpus of sayings in  Murphy's Law. There is in fact a Pohl's principle in the first book. You can go look it up. But, today was one of the few times I needed a scanner. Our office has no scanner. At the first place I went to the scanner was broken. The scanner was also broken at the second place I tried. The third place had no scanner and I finally struck gold at place number four. Not only did they have a scanner, but it actually worked. Of course I was lucky I only had to go to three places with a scanner to find one that worked. Nothing ever works the first time or the second time. If you are really lucky it will work the third time. In fact that is why it is still called the Third World long after the death of the Second World and the whole idea of nonalignment.